Synonyms for Stripped:

adj.

all (adjective)
bare, stripped-down.
bare (adjective)
unclothed, unclad, Divested, Disrobed, bald.
exposed (adjective)
bared.
naked (adjective)
denuded, exposed, bald, bare, peeled, undressed, unclothed, Divested, unclad, Disrobed.
stripped (adjective)
exposed, denuded, undressed, peeled, bare.

n.

a state of undress, topless, full-frontal. joinery, knotty, carpentry, dovetail, mortice, sand, preserve, season, mortise, sawdust. stripped (noun)
empty, minimal, unclothed, minimum, bare, stripped-down.

v.

divested (verb)
bared, shedded.
simplified (verb)
reduced, Elucidated, clarified, simplified, refined, purified, Factored.
strip (verb)
empty.

Other synonyms:

topless, full-frontal. Other relevant words:
minimal, minimum, full-frontal, stripped-down, empty, topless.

Usage examples for stripped

  1. He had cast aside his hunting shirt in that run to the fence and was now stripped to the waist. – Betty Zane by Zane Grey
  2. About three o'clock in the afternoon, I got intelligence that they were seized and stripped of every thing they had about them. – A Voyage Towards the South Pole and Round the World, Volume 1 by James Cook
  3. It was a most noble face; a fortress face; strong and massive, and honourable in ruin, though stripped of every flower. – The Complete Project Gutenberg Works of George Meredith by George Meredith