Synonyms for Sediment:

n.

blanket, surface, paint, skin, membrane, cover, layer, plate. bed, bedrock, rock, stone, aquifer, stratum, dreg, leftover, outcrop, steppingstone, lees, precipitation. dirt (noun)
soot.
residue (noun)
artifact, chaff, detritus, vestige, Filings, grounds, remainder, afterglow, precipitate, dregs, debris, afterimage, residue, scum, remnant, leftovers, dross, sawdust, slag.
settlings (noun)
sand, gritty matter, alluvium, powder, soot, trash, solids, loess, grit, silt, lees.
solid residue from liquid solution (noun)
dregs, dross, silt, slag, debris, trash, grounds, powder, precipitate, solids, lees, precipitation.

v.

remains (verb)
lees.

Other synonyms:

bedrock, outcrop, stratum, dreg, aquifer, silt. steppingstone. precipitation. bed. stone, rock. carbon
soot.
rubbish
trash.
Other relevant words:
plate, steppingstone, stone, powder, surface, layer, leftover, paint, cover, skin, trash, precipitation, outcrop, alluvium, rock, bedrock, sand, grit, soot, dreg, stratum, bed, solids, aquifer, membrane, loess, blanket, silt, lees.